Ellie Wood Keith Genealogy

Richard de Clare, Lord of Clare and Tonbridge

Richard de Clare, Lord of Clare and Tonbridge[1]

Male Bef 1100 - 1136  (~ 36 years)

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  • Name Richard de Clare 
    Suffix Lord of Clare and Tonbridge 
    Born Bef 1100 
    Gender Male 
    History Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare (died 15 April 1136) 3rd Lord of Clare, was an Anglo-Norman nobleman. A marcher lord in Wales, he was also the founder of Tonbridge Priory in Kent.
    Life[edit]
    Richard was the eldest son of Gilbert Fitz Richard de Clare and Adeliza de Claremont.[1] Upon his father\'s death, he inherited his lands in England and Wales.

    He is commonly said to have been created Earl of Hertford by either Henry I or Stephen, but no contemporary reference to him, including the record of his death, calls him by any title, while a cartulary states that a tenant had held \"de Gilleberto, filio Richardi, et de Ricardo, filio ejus, et postea, de Comite Gilleberto, filio Richardi\" (\"of Gilbert Fitz Richard, and his son Richard, and then of Earl Gilbert Fitz Richard\"), again failing to call Richard \'Earl\' while giving that title to his son. Thus his supposed creation as earl is without merit, although his status and wealth made him a great magnate in England.[1] There is an old photo document on the Wikipedia page for Tonbridge priory which states that the priory was founded by Richard de Clare EARL of (B.. illegible) and Hertfordshire.

    Directly following the death of Henry I, hostilities increased significantly in Wales and a rebellion broke out.[2] Robert was a strong supporter of King Stephen and in the first two years of his reign Robert attested a total of twenty-nine of that king\'s charters.[3] He was with King Stephen when he formalized a treaty with King David I of Scotland and was a royal steward at Stephen\'s great Easter court in 1136.[3] He was also with Stephen at the siege of Exeter that summer and was in attendance on the king on his return from Normandy. At this point, Richard apparently demanded more land in Wales, which Stephen was not willing to give him.[3]

    In 1136, Richard had been away from his lordship in the early part of the year. He returned to the borders of Wales via Hereford in the company of Brian Fitz Count, but on their separating, Richard ignored warnings of the danger and pressed on toward Ceredigion with only a small force.[4] He had not gone far when, on 15 April, he was ambushed and killed by the men of Gwent under Iorwerth ab Owain and his brother Morgan, grandsons of Caradog ap Gruffydd, in a woody tract called \"the ill-way of Coed Grano\", near Llanthony Abbey, north of Abergavenny.[5] Today the spot is marked by the \'garreg dial\' (the stone of revenge).[6] He was buried in Tonbridge Priory,[7] which he founded.[1]

    Aftermath[edit]
    The news of Richard\'s death induced Owain Gwynedd, son of Gruffudd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd to invade his lordship. In alliance with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth, he won a crushing victory over the Normans at the Battle of Crug Mawr, just outside Cardigan. The town of Cardigan was taken and burnt, and Richard\'s widow, Alice, took refuge in Cardigan Castle, which was successfully defended by Robert fitz Martin. She was rescued by Miles of Gloucester, who led an expedition to bring her to safety in England.[1]

    Family[edit]
    Richard married Alice, sister of Ranulf de Gernon, 4th Earl of Chester,[1] by her having:

    Gilbert Fitz Richard de Clare, d. 1153 (without issue), 1st Earl of Hertford.[8]
    Roger de Clare, d. 1173, 2nd Earl of Hertford.[8]
    Alice de Clare (Adelize de Tonbridge), m. (1) about 1133, Sir William de Percy, Lord of Topcliffe, son of Alan de Percy and Emma de Gant; (2) Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd, brother of Owain Gwynedd
    Robert Fitz Richard de Clare, perhaps died in childhood
    Rohese de Clare, m. Gilbert de Gant, Earl of Lincoln.[9]
    flag Normandy portal
    References[edit]
    ^ Jump up to: a b c d e George Cokayne,The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, Vol. III, Ed. Vicary Gibbs (London: St Catherine Press, 1913), p. 243
    Jump up ^ David Walker, Medieval Wales (Cambridge UK & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), p. 45
    ^ Jump up to: a b c Jennifer C. Ward, \'Royal Service and Reward: The Clare Family and the Crown, 1066-1154\', Anglo-Norman Studies XI. Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1988, Ed. R. Allen Brown (Woodbridge, The Boydell Press, 1989), p. 274
    Jump up ^ John Horace Round, Studies in Peerage and Family History (Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd., 1901), p. 211
    Jump up ^ The historical works of Giraldus Cambrensis, Ed. Thomas Wright (London: H.G. Bohn, 1863), p. 365
    Jump up ^ Anna Tucker, Gwent (Princes Risborough: Shire, 1987), p. 40
    Jump up ^ James Foster Wadmore, The priory of s. Mary Magdalene at Tonbridge (London: Michell & Hughes, 1881), p. 8
    ^ Jump up to: a b George Cokayne,The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, Vol. III, Ed. Vicary Gibbs (London: St Catherine Press, 1913), p. 244
    Jump up ^ George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage; or, a History of the House of Lords and all its Members from the Earliest Times, Vol. VI, Eds. H. A. Doubleday & Howard de Walden (London: The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., 1926), p. 645
    Sources[edit]
    Round, John Horace (1887). \"Clare, Richard de (d.1136?)\". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 10. London: Smith, Elder & Co.  [2
    History Richard was born in 1094, the son of Gilbert FitzRichard de Tonbridge, lord of Clare and Tonbridge, and Adelize de Clermont. He married Alice/Adeliza of Chester, daughter of Ranulph de Meschines, 1st earl of Chester, vicomte de Bayeux, and Lucia of Alkborough. They had five children, of whom four would have progeny.

    Richard held the lordship of Ceredigion in Wales. A Welsh revolt against Norman rule had begun in south Wales, where on 1 January 1136 the Welsh won a victory over the local Norman forces between Loughor and Swansea. Richard had been away from his lordship in the early part of the year. Returning to the borders of Wales in April, he ignored warnings of the danger and pressed on towards Ceredigion with a small force. He had not gone far when he was ambushed and killed on 15 April 1136 by the men of Gwent under Iorwerth ab Owain and his brother Morgan, grandsons of Caradog ap Gruyffyd, in a woody tract called \'the ill-way of Coed Grano\', near the abbey of Lanthony, Abergavenny.

    The news of Richard\'s death induced Owain Gwynedd, son of Gruffyd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd, to invade his lordship. In alliance with Gruyffyd ap Rhys of Deheubarth he won a crushing victory over the Normans at the Battle of Crug Mawr, just outside Cardigan. The town of Cardigan was taken and burnt, and Richard\'s widow Alice took refuge in Cardigan Castle, which was successfully defended by Robert fitz Martin. She was rescued by Miles of Gloucester who led an expedition to bring her to safety in England.

    Richard is remembered as the founder of the priory of Tonbridge.  [3
    Died 15 Apr 1136  near Abergavenny Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I2598  Ellie Wood Keith
    Last Modified 12 Apr 2018 

    Father Gilbert FitzRichard, De Clare, 2nd Lord of Tonbridge,   b. 1055, Clare, St Edmundsbury Borough, Suffolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1117, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 62 years) 
    Relationship putative 
    Mother Adeliza De Breteuil De Montmorency,   b. 1058, Northamptonshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1125, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 67 years) 
    Relationship putative 
    Family ID F1986  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Alice (Adeliza) of Chester,   b. Abt 1101 
    Children 
    +1. Adelaide de Clare,   d. Aft 1147
    Last Modified 27 Mar 2018 
    Family ID F1677  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Photos
    Priory of Tonbridge in Kent
    Priory of Tonbridge in Kent

  • Sources 
    1. [S64] Genealogics, Leo Van de Pas, http://www.genealogics.org/pedigree.php?personID=I00030540&tree=LEO.

    2. [S12] Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Fitz_Gilbert_de_Clare.

    3. [S64] Genealogics, Leo Van de Pas, http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027603&tree=LEO.